G. Sandu, M. Coulombier, V. Kumar, H. G. Kassa, I. Avram, R.Ye, A. Stopin, D. Bonifazi, J.-F. Gohy, P. Leclère, X. Gonze, T. Pardoen, A. Vlad, S. Melinte
Sci. Rep. 2018, 8, 9794
A tri-dimensional interweaving kinked silicon nanowires (k-SiNWs) assembly, with a Ni current collector co-integrated, is evaluated as electrode configuration for lithium ion batteries. The large-scale fabrication of k-SiNWs is based on a procedure for continuous metal assisted chemical etching of Si, supported by a chemical peeling step that enables the reuse of the Si substrate. The kinks are triggered by a simple, repetitive etch-quench sequence in a HF and H2O2-based etchant. We find that the inter-locking frameworks of k-SiNWs and multi-walled carbon nanotubes exhibit beneficial mechanical properties with a foam-like behavior amplified by the kinks and a suitable porosity for a minimal electrode deformation upon Li insertion. In addition, ionic liquid electrolyte systems associated with the integrated Ni current collector repress the detrimental effects related to the Si-Li alloying reaction, enabling high cycling stability with 80% capacity retention (1695 mAh/gSi) after 100 cycles. Areal capacities of 2.42 mAh/cm2 (1276 mAh/gelectrode) can be achieved at the maximum evaluated thickness (corresponding to 1.3 mgSi/cm2). This work emphasizes the versatility of the metal assisted chemical etching for the synthesis of advanced Si nanostructures for high performance lithium ion battery electrodes.